Monday, November 10th, 2008


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By Stephen T. Maimbodei
Harare

“AN election in Africa has once again ended with the opposition rejecting the final results and claiming that the election was rigged”.

When the headline was read out on Sunday evening, I heaved a sigh, and exclaimed: “Boy oh boy, not again!”

I have always wondered whether the cry about election fraud, which almost always comes soon after election results are announced, is an indictment on our young and fledgling democracies and their ability to successfully administer elections

I have also wondered if this actually is a plus sign in nation state building. And I also question, administer them for whom, and in whose interests? Are the people ever a factor in all these? Are the underlying issues as simplistic as I am making them to be?

There seems to be an unwritten African code, which says that a strong opposition party pitting itself against the ruling party should win any election, whether parliamentary or presidential. If they fail to win, then the election and the electoral system are condemned, and the denunciation carries more weight if the Western media champions it.

For years now, we have witnessed that any opposition defeat automatically becomes electoral fraud, accompanied by the usual jibe that the election has been stolen, and claims that the poll was not free and fair and that these are a potent enough mix to produce a rigged poll.

This is a script whose template has been replicated all over Africa when opposition parties lose to ruling parties. It is tired copy, but one which is happily accepted in the West, and one which reinforces the stereotypical images of undemocratic election processes in Africa, and the inability to govern.

The next step is for the opposition to reject the results, take the matter to the courts, and demand a recount. Zimbabwe is currently in a political malaise because of this phenomenon.

On October 30, Zambians went to the polls to elect a president to replace the late Levy Mwanawasa who passed on last August. Four contestants vied for the post although at the end only two remained major contenders, then acting President Rupiah Banda of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy and Michael Sata of the Patriotic Front.

Out of a population of 11 477 447, more than 3 million are, according to the Electoral Commission of Zambia, registered voters, and 1 768 210 people cast valid votes, which is less than 50 percent of the total number of registered voters. It is quite clear then that voter turnout was low. However, when all was said and done, Sata rejected the result, alleging malpractices, demanded a recount and announced his intention to challenge the results in court.

As if to give credence to Sata’s claims, the Western media made an issue of the fact that President Banda won the election by a narrow margin, and went on to be sworn in barely two hours after the announcement of the final result.

President Banda beat his rival by 35 209 votes. One wonders why winning an election with a narrow margin, where the difference between the two is greater than the number of votes grossed by the fourth contestant who polled 13 683 votes, would be an issue. According to election observers — local, regional and international – the elections were conducted in a free and fair manner in accordance with the Sadc guidelines on the conduct of elections.

Sata had initially asked the Electoral Commission of Zambia to delay announcing the full result since he believed that his initial lead was going to be maintained. However, his request was denied and he claimed in an interview that “a bunch of thieves have stolen (his) votes”.

This was the second time Sata claimed electoral fraud. In the previous poll that pitted him against late Mwanawasa, he did the same and took the case up to the Zambian courts. What is disturbing in this trend, which seems to be quite unique to African politics, is the number of times election fraud cases arise in most elections. And it is almost like a given that the opposition has to win an election in order for the election to be accepted as free and fair. Why?

Zimbabwe, Kenya, Nigeria, Malawi, Uganda, Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia and many others have had these problems, whether genuine or not genuine. These are problems that stall national development and make it difficult for incoming governments to implement developmental projects as time and scarce resources are wasted in what President Banda has described as “petty squabbles”.

Who also says that if a candidate is initially leading, then it is a given that they should emerge the ultimate winner? Who also says that if one wins by a small margin, then the results are questionable?

A Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation reporter interviewed an official from one of the opposition political parties (not PF) who expressed satisfaction with the electoral process. Then, they were waiting for the last batch of results from 20 constituencies in outlying areas and all believed to be MMD strongholds just like urban centres were Sata’s strongholds.

An MMD official who was also interviewed on ZNBC expressed satisfaction with the voting process, and said that despite the razor-thin difference between the two leading contenders, MMD was confident of victory since they already had the results which had been posted outside polling stations in the various constituencies.

Why, therefore, did the opposition claim electoral fraud if the process was transparent and was endorsed by various observers? Is electoral fraud being institutionalised even in cases where it is unwarranted in order to diminish Africa’s electoral systems? Who stands to benefit each time people refuse to accept the results of a process they would have participated in? Not the people obviously!

Depending on what the Zambian constitution says, Sata should accept the results. Doing so is a sign of respect to the Zambian people – his supporters and others who did not vote for him.

Development programmes in Africa cannot be sacrificed on the altar of expediency and personal egos should rise above the people’s interests.


Copyright © 2008 The Herald. All rights reserved.

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Mandela pays tribute to ‘Mama Afrika’

Miriam Makeba, the South African singer who became a world famous symbol of the anti-apartheid movement, died this morning, apparently of a heart attack after performing at an anti Mafia concert in southern Italy.

The 76-year-old singer died after being brought to the Pineta Grande Clinic at Castelvolturno at the end of a concert in support of Roberto Saviano, an Italian journalist threatened with death by the Naples Mafia, because of his exposure of the mob in his bestselling book.

Born in Johannesburg in 1932 to a Xhosa father and Swazi mother, Makeba – often called ‘Mama Afrika’ and ‘the Empress of African Song’ – left South Africa in 1959. When she tried to return for the funeral of her mother the following year, her passport was taken away and she was banned from the country. She addressed the UN in 1976 to denounce apartheid, after which her songs were banned in South Africa.The singer lived in exile for over thirty years in the United States, France, West Africa and Belgium. She went back to South Africa in 1990, when the then President, FW de Klerk, began to introduce reforms which eventually ended in the dismantling of apartheid and the release from prison and subsequent election as President of Nelson Mandela.

Makeba sang with Harry Belafonte in the 1960s and with Paul Simon in the 1980s. She became the first black African woman to receive a Grammy award, sharing it with Belafonte, and her greatest hit song was ‘Pata Pata’ (Xhosa for ‘touch, touch’). She once said: “Through my music I became this voice and image of Africa and the people without even realising it.”

Reports suggest that, after performing in her final concert, Makeba had asked for a copy of Mr Saviano’s book on the Naples Mafia in English, and then returned to her hotel complaining she was feeling unwell. She died in the early hours of this morning.

The performer’s final concert went ahead despite an alleged threat posed by the Mafia to the security of those performing and attending. La Repubblica, the Italian newspaper, said that “not even the arrogance of the Camorra” had stopped the performance, with reports suggesting that threats had been issued to those constructing the stage.

The concert had been staged on a square where, last May, Domenico Noviello, a local anti Mafia businessman, had been gunned down. Castelvolturno, a grim and rundown seaside resort, was also the scene of a Camorra massacre in September, when six immigrants of African origin were shot dead in a turf war over drugs.

Copyright 2008 Times Newspapers Ltd.

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The stakes are high and oh, yes they are … the world economy is in shambles and there is very little time for the Banda Administration to honey moon. With the Kwacha depreciating against hard currencies, commodities prices going down and our purchasing parity dwindling, the next few years will call for extraordinary paradigm shifts.

 

The Zambian government has already cut this year’s economic growth forecast to 6% from 7% following a 58% drop in copper prices in London in the last six months. For a country whose 63% of all government revenues depend on the exports from copper and cobalt to the outside world, we don’t envy the Banda Administration taking over the Zambian Enterprise at a time such as this.

 

Even though fiscal year 2007 only gave us a 5.4% GDP growth, government was optimistic the projected 7% was feasible but with the global financial crisis, reduction in foreign investment will impact growth forecasts for a country that relays heavily on FDI.

 

Further, the imposition of a 25% profit windfall tax and an increase to 3% from 0.6% on mining royalties is another factor that may be a huge cause for concern in this economic downturn because technically corporations don’t pay taxes they simply pass them on to consumers.

 

Such higher taxes lead to mining companies imposing wage freezes until such a time that they would increase their operating revenues above the taxable threshold, the resultant being less consumer spending coupled with less factory orders due to stagnant income and or liquidity that lead to other effects.

 

On top of that the global financial squeeze has the capacity to force institutional investors to withdraw foreign exchange in government securities. This has already hurt the kwacha and government has to do double time to stabilize the local currency using other fiscal measures that would curb inflation as well.

 

As the local currency depreciates a lower purchasing parity making goods imported into the Zambian Enterprise more expensive than usual kicks in due to balance of payments in our current accounts. The spiral is long winding and thus the call for more focus from us at the Zambian Chronicle.

 

Fortunately for President Rupiah B Banda, he is an economist who would have a good grasp of the economic issues at hand but what will work against him is what we call the “Expectations Game” from the electorate.

 

With Levy having enjoyed relative growth during a time the world economy was growing, the average Jim and Jack will not buy Rupiah’s story of the world undergoing a recession, in fact every Jim and Jack thinks RB should do better … and who on God’s earth would blame them?

 

We don’t even care how good a team RB may assemble, if such a team misses the crux of the matter, there might be very little the Banda Administration may be able to achieve if it does not use the right mix to turn this global economic malaise to its advantage.

 

Different economic theories apply to different scenarios to leverage and mitigate prevailing circumstances. It’s more like different medicines being used for different diseases and what worked there and then may not in the here and now.

 

Having analyzed all scenarios involved we at the Zambian Chronicle see the normative approaches that are great at offering prescriptions and recommendations on what should be done to not only help lower “expectations” but also help reach the targeted growth and forecast.

 

Neo-Keynesianism might be the best route here. This is because this theory looks more at what government involvement would be in terms of the General Theory of Employment. The Japanese used this theory after World War II captioned it and called it “Total or Full Employment”.

 

By mandating that every Japanese be employed they created revenue through taxation of their able-bodied working citizenry. The Japanese government deliberately embarked on construction of airports, highways, bridges and other infra-structures using borrowed money until they had enough reserves of their own.

 

The Zambian Enterprise has enough reserves to start with and can do with what we have on hand to seriously begin applying Neo-Keynesianism. While this economic theory has other variations like effect(s) of interest rates and money supply, the main impetus though is on total employment deliberately commissioned by government and or using government incentives.

 

Upon completion, government can start levying toll charges on these roads, bridges, airports, etc. to recover construction costs and meanwhile as more people enter the work force, consumer spending increases, government revenue goes up with taxation kicking in a multiplier effect and the rest is history.

 

This will not be easy to achieve though because it will require changing the way we think and operate. Every one has to have a sense of urgency and move in the right direction all pulling for mother Zambia knowing our time is now.

 

These are serious times; the Banda Administration is at the bleak of making it or breaking. Levy’s shoes are way too big for any one to fill and times have changed, what worked for us then may not now and we all owe it to ourselves to move the nation forward.

 

We wish the new administration God’s Speed as the honey moon dies down but time is of the essence otherwise there will never be another MMD administration (not that we are rooting for the MMD) if the right economic mix is not adopted, it is now or never.

 

Live Long & Prosper; that’s this week’s memo from us at the Zambian Chronicle … thanks a trillion.

 

Brainwave R Mumba, Sr.

CEO  & President – Zambian Chronicle 

 

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The FDA received numerous media inquires about a recently published paper (Pooled analysis of two case–control studies on use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumors diagnosed in 1997–2003by Hardell et al.) reporting increased risk of malignant brain tumor associated with long term use ( >10 years) of cell phones and cordless phones. This is not a new study but is an analysis of two studies previously published in 2003 and 2005. Both studies were population based case control studies. Cases were recruited based on histopathological diagnoses submitted to regional cancer registries in Uppsala/Örebro and Linköping regions of Sweden. Control subjects were taken from a population registry covering the whole population in Sweden.

Several studies have been recently published on the risk of long term cell phone use (> 10 years) and brain cancer1. The results reported by Hardell et al. are not in agreement with results obtained in other long term studies. Also, the use of mailed questionnaire for exposure assessment and lack of adjustments for possible confounding factors makes the Hardell et al. study design significantly different from other studies. These facts along with the lack of an established mechanism of action and absence of supporting animal data make it difficult to interpret Hardell et al. findings.

The FDA continues to monitor studies looking at possible health effects resulting from exposure to radio frequency energy. In 1999, FDA signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Cellular Telecommunication & Internet Association (CTIA)2. As called for by this CRADA , FDA plans to convene a meeting in the near future to evaluate all completed, ongoing and planned research looking at health effects associated with the use of wireless communication devices and identify knowledge gaps that may warrant additional research.

Research Cooperation with the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA)

FDA and the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA) have a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to do research on wireless phone safety. FDA provides the scientific oversight, obtaining input from experts in government, industry, and academic organizations. CTIA-funded research is conducted through contracts to independent investigators. The initial research will include both laboratory studies and studies of wireless phone users. The CRADA will also include a broad assessment of additional research needs in the context of the latest research developments around the world.

General Information About the CRADA

FDA Recommendations Concerning Research to be Conducted Under the CRADA

FDA has recommended CTIA fund research to address questions raised by previous studies on the effect of radio frequency exposure on micronucleus formation. The specific questions of interest to FDA are:

  • Is the reported effect of RF exposure on lymphocytes accurate and reproducible?
  • What is the role of temperature change in the observed results with RF exposure?
  • Do In Vivo RF exposures increase micronucleous formation?

CTIA followed FDA’s recommendation and funded two In Vitro studies and one In Vivo study:

  • Integrated Laboratory Systems, Research Triangle Park, NC. (In Vitro).
  • Interuniversity Center on Interaction Between Electromagnetic Fields and Biosystems, Naples and Rome, Italy. (In Vitro).
  • The Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Aerosol Research, Hannover, Germany. (In Vivo).

The studies funded by CTIA satisfactorily address the research needs identified by FDA. FDA continues to monitor the progress of these studies through a regular series of progress reports and site visits.

Micronucleus Formation

  • Federal Register Notice for a Meeting (August, 2000) Text
  • Meeting Transcript, Day One WORD or PDF (note: file is 229 pages/339KB)
  • Meeting Transcript, Day Two WORD or PDF (note: file is 99 pages/148KB)
  • FDA Research Recommendations Text

Epidemiology (Studies of Human Populations)

  • Federal Register Notice for a Meeting (April, 2001) Text
  • Meeting Transcript, Day One WORD or PDF (note: file is 297 pages/357KB)
  • Meeting Transcript, Day Two WORD or PDF (note: file is 87 pages/131KB)
  • Federal Register Notice for a Meeting (May, 2001) Text
  • Meeting Transcript, Day One WORD or PDF (note: file is 599 pages/577KB)
  • Meeting Transcript, Day Two WORD or PDF (note: file is 281 pages/285KB)
  • FDA Research Recommendations WORD, PDF or Text
Results of the Danish brain tumour component of INTERPHONE Study
 

 

The first results of analyses of risk of brain tumour in relation to use of mobile telephones in the Danish part of INTERPHONE were published on 12 April 2005 in Neurology http://www.neurology.org/: Collatz Christensen H., Schüz J, Kosteljanetz M, Skovgaard Poulsen H, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK and Johansen C. Cellular telephones and risk for brain tumors: a population-based, incident case-control study. Neurology 64: 1189-1195. The study included 252 incident glioma cases, 175 incident meningioma cases and 822 randomly selected population based controls stratified on age and gender. The cases were aged 20 to 69 and diagnosed in 2000-2002 in the whole of Denmark. Participation rates were 71% for glioma, 74% for meningioma and 64% for controls. Regular mobile phone use did not increase the risk of low-grade glioma or of meningioma (low-grade glioma OR=1.08, 95% CI 0.58-2.00; meningioma: OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.54-0.1.28). No association was found with time since first exposure (only 6 meningioma and 6 low-grade glioma cases had started using mobile phones 10 years or more before diagnosis, however) or with numbers of call or hours of calls.

A statistically significant reduction in risk was seen for high-grade glioma (OR 0.58, 95%CI 0.37-0.90). The finding is puzzling as there is, a priori, no biological mechanism for such a reduction. It is noted that 18% of the glioma cases could not be interviewed as they had either died or were too ill. Although no information is provided about the grade of the tumours among non-respondents, it is likely that a large proportion of these were high-grade gliomas. In addition, patients with high-grade glioma had significantly lower scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination than patients with lower-grade glioma or meningioma. The reduced risk for high-grade glioma may therefore reflect selection and/or recall bias.

To date, few studies have included sufficient numbers of cases among long-term users to allow a definitive conclusion about a possible association between mobile telephone use and the risk of brain cancer. These results therefore need to be confirmed in other studies before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Results of other national components of the INTERPHONE Study should be published later in 2005 and 2006 (The results of the Swedish brain tumour study were published earlier this year http://aje.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/161/6/526/). Results from the International analyses, which will cover about 2800 glioma cases and 2400 meningioma cases and sizable numbers of long-term users, are expected later in 2005.

More information about the Danish study and its results can be found on the site of the Danish Cancer Centre www.cancer.dk.

Results from the Swedish brain tumour component of INTERPHONE Study
 

 

The first results of analyses of risk of brain tumour in relation to use of mobile telephones in the Swedish part of INTERPHONE were published on 4 March 2005 in the American Journal of Epidemiology http://aje.oupjournals.org/ : Lönn, Stefan; Ahlbom, Anders; Hall, Per; Feychting, Maria and the Swedish Interphone Study Group; Long-Term Mobile Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk. Am J Epidemiol 161: 1-10.The study included 371 incident glioma cases, 273 incident meningioma cases and 674 randomly selected population based controls stratified on age, gender and residential area. The cases were aged 20 to 60 and diagnosed in 2000-2002 in parts of Sweden. Regular mobile phone use did not increase the risk of glioma or of meningioma (glioma OR=0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.0; meningioma: OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). Similar results were found for more than 10 years’ duration of mobile phone use. No statistically significantly increased risk was seen for ipsilateral tumours or for tumours located in the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain (the areas thought to be most exposed to radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones). The authors conclude that the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to the risk of glioma or of meningioma.

Results combined analyses of acoustic neurinoma risk in the Northern European centres included in INTERPHONE
 

 

The results of combined analyses of risk of acoustic neurinoma in relation to use of mobile telephones in the Northern European countries included in the INTERPHONE Study were published online on 30 August 2005 in the British Journal of Cancer
http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/index.html:
Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Ahlbom A, Auvinen A, Blaasaas KG, Cardis E, Collatz Christensen H, Feychting M, Hepworth SJ, Johansen C, Klæboe L, Lonn S, McKinney PA, Muir K, Raitanen J, Salminen T, Thomsen J, Tynes T. Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries. British Journal of Cancer – on-line 30 August 2005.

The analyses included 678 acoustic neurinoma cases and 3,553 randomly selected population based controls stratified on age, gender and residential area from Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the UK. The subjects included in the previously published Danish and Swedish analyses (Christensen et al, 2004 and Lönn et al, 2005) were included in these analyses.

Regular mobile phone use did not increase the risk of neurinoma in this pooled data set (OR=0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1). There was no association of risk with duration of use, lifetime cumulative hours of use or number of calls, for phone use overall or for analogue or digital phones separately. Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1). The authors conclude that there is no substantial risk of this tumour in the first 10 years after starting mobile phone use. However, an increased risk after longer term use could not be ruled out.

Acoustic neurinoma are rare tumours, occurring in less than one adult per 100 000 per year. They are slowly growing benign tumours that generally have a good prognosis, as they only rarely undergo malignant change.

To date, few studies have included sufficient numbers of cases among long-term users to allow a definitive conclusion about the existence or not of a possible association between mobile telephone use and the risk of brain cancer. This paper presents the results of analyses based on the largest number of acoustic neurinomas to date, from European countries where mobile phones were introduced particularly early. The study included 47 cases who had started mobile phone use 10 years or more in the past.

Results of other national components of the INTERPHONE Study should be published later in 2005 and 2006. The first paper from the international analyses, which will cover about 1100 neurinoma cases and sizable numbers of long-term users, should be published shortly.

More information about the analyses can be found on the site of the Institute for Cancer Research, which coordinated these analyses: www.icr.ac.uk

References cited

Collatz Christensen, Helle; Schüz, Joachiml; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Skovgaard Poulsen, Hans; Thomsen Jens and Johansen, Christoffer. Cellular Telephone Use and Risk of Acoustic Neuroma, Am. J. Epidemiol. 2004 159: 277-283

Lönn, Stefan; Ahlbom, Anders; Hall, Per; Feychting, Maria. Mobile Phone Use and the Risk of Acoustic Neuroma. Epidemiology 2005 15 (6): 653-659.


 

Results from the UK brain tumour (glioma) component of the INTERPHONE Study
The first results of analyses of risk of brain tumour in relation to use of mobile telephones in the British part of INTERPHONE were published on 19 January 2006 in the British Medical Journal http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/onlinefirst_date.shtml: Hepworth J, Schoemaker MJ, Muir KR, Swerdlow AJ, van Tongeren MJA, McKinney PA. Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study. BMJ Online First bmj.comThe study included 966 incident glioma cases and 1716 randomly selected population based controls stratified on age, gender and residential area. The cases were aged 20 to 60 and diagnosed in 2000-2004 in five areas of the UK. Regular mobile phone use did not increase the risk of glioma (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13). There was no relation for risk of glioma and time since first use, lifetime years of use, and cumulative number of calls and hours of use. A significant excess risk was found for reported phone use ipsilateral to the tumour (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.52); however, a significant reduction in risk was seen (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93) for contralateral use: recall bias was postulated, as the explanation for this finding.

 

 

Results from the German brain tumour (glioma and meningioma) component of the INTERPHONE Study
The first results of analyses of risk of brain tumour in relation to use of mobile telephones in the German part of INTERPHONE were published in the advance online access edition of the American Journal of Epidemiology, 27 January 2006
http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/papbyrecent.dtl: Joachim Schüz, Eva Böhler, Gabriele Berg, Brigitte Schlehofer, Iris Hettinger, Klaus Schlaefer, Jürgen Wahrendorf, Katharina Kunna-Grass, and Maria Blettner. Cellular Phones, Cordless Phones, and the Risks of Glioma and Meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany).

The authors conclude that, consistent with results of most published studies, overall use of mobile phones is not associated with an increased risk of brain tumour. However, the elevated risk of glioma in long-term users needs to be confirmed in further studies.

To date, few studies have included sufficient numbers of cases among long-term users to allow a definitive conclusion about the existence or not of a possible association between mobile telephone use and the risk of brain cancer. The German study included only 12 cases of glioma who had used phones for 10 years or more. Results of further studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

The first paper from the combined analyses from 13 INTERPHONE countries, which will cover about 2800 glioma and 2400 meningioma cases and sizable numbers of long-term users, should be published in 2006.

 

 

 

The study included 366 incident glioma cases, 381 meningioma cases, and 1494 randomly selected population based controls matched on gender, age, and study centre. The cases were aged 30 to 69 and diagnosed between 2000 and 2003 in three areas of Germany (Mainz, Bielefeld and Heidelberg). Overall, regular mobile phone use did not increase the risk of glioma (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.29) or meningioma (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.13). Amongst persons who had used a mobile phone for at least ten years, however, the relative risk increased to 2.20 (95% CI 0.94 to 5.11) for glioma, while no increase was observed for meningioma. There was no difference between users and non-users in risk of either glioma or meningioma in the lobe of the brain thought to receive the highest exposure to radiofrequency radiation from mobile phones (the temporal lobe).

 

 

The authors conclude that, consistent with results of most published studies, use of a mobile phone, either in the short or medium term, is not associated with an increased risk of glioma.

To date, few studies have included sufficient numbers of cases among long-term users to allow a definitive conclusion about the existence or not of a possible association between mobile telephone use and the risk of brain cancer. This is the largest study of brain cancer in relation to mobile telephones to date, with 66 cases who had started use 10 years or more previously. Results of further studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Results of other national components of the INTERPHONE Study should be published later in 2006. The first paper from the international analyses, which will cover about 2800 glioma cases and sizable numbers of long-term users, should be published in 2006.

 

To date, few studies have included sufficient numbers of cases among long-term users to allow a definitive conclusion about the existence or not of a possible association between mobile telephone use and the risk of brain cancer. This is one of only two studies available at present with sizable numbers of subjects who used mobile phones for 10 years or more. Results of further studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Results of other national components of the INTERPHONE Study should be published later in 2005 and 2006. The first paper from the international analyses, which will cover about 2800 glioma cases and 2400 meningioma cases and sizable numbers of long-term users, should be published in 2005.

More information about the Swedish study group can be found on the site of the Karolinska Institute.
http://www.imm.ki.se/divisions/epidemiology/index.html
The article is part of a thesis and a press release in English is available at:

http://www.imm.ki.se/PDF/Press/Press%20release%20nov%2025%202004.pdf