Kaunda


Choose Your Language Of Preference Below

French Version German Version Russian Version Spanish Version 

 WATCH Zambian TV (ZNBC TV

As earlier promised, our memo this week will focus on the accomplishments of our first republican president for the Zambian Enterprise as he celebrates his birthday anniversary.  

We understand that most Africans get their understanding of historical records based on the west and understandably so; because a large part of our history on the entire continent has been written for us by western scholars.

 

What we have found over the years is that such writings are usually biased, in most cases not fully factual and at best mostly incomplete. They tend to serve the egos of the writer more than the premise of shared knowledge.

 

We at the Chronicle will endeavor to rewrite our own history in most instances and what a better time to start than during commemorative events such as a birthday of one of the greatest sons of Africa.

 

Brief Personal Background

 

He was born at Lubwa Mission near Chinsali in Northern Province on April 24, 1924 to missionary parents from Malawi. His parents moved to Zambia in 1904 as ordained minister and teacher. In fact his mother was the first African woman to teach in colonial Zambia.

 

He was the youngest of eight siblings but grew up with determination and self respect of the older child. At an earlier age, Kenneth was seen by his peers as a natural born leader who for the most part had the ability to unity factions.

 

He was barely 19 when he began teaching at Lubwa after completing his education and by the time he was 20 years old, he was Headmaster there. He remained at Lubwa from 1944 to 1947 when he moved to the Copperbelt to found a farmer’s cooperative union in 1948.

 

While working on his cooperative venture he also worked as a boarding master at Mufulira Upper School (1948 – 1949) which period provided him with first hand discriminatory tendencies of white supremacy and its evil conniptions at the time.

 

Liberation Politics Unusual

 

His teaching job, cooperative venture and his welfare officer status accorded him the ability to see and understand the real sufferings of his country men and women and thus he decided to join forces with the African National Congress.

 

What most Africans don’t know is that the ANC was similar to a continental liberation movement not only in South Africa but almost across the whole Sub-Saharan region. It was a Black Movement that transcended regional and national borders at the time.

 

District and provincial centers were organized at various locales and so to be effective Kaunda thought he needed to be in a place where most people were familiar with his passion and norms. He thus left the Copperbelt and went back to the Northern Province where he quickly rose through the ranks.

 

Harry Mwaanga Nkumbula was the national president for the Zambian Chapter of ANC and he immediately noticed Kaunda accolades. Kenneth D Kaunda was asked to move to Lusaka in 1953 as Secretary General under the Nkumbula presidency.

 

In 1957 Kaunda traveled to India and met Mohandas Gandhi and was forever deeply influenced by the nonviolent civil disobedience principles he had devised and saw them as a way of leading the liberation struggle in his own nation.

 

Upon returning home, he shared both his passion and principles he had learnt from Gandhi with his boss (Nkumbula) but the later was seen more as an appeaser of whites more than a freedom fighter.

 

It is believed that Nkumbula’s attitude emanated from a series of prison stints he was forced to survive with Kaunda during the time he became Secretary General. They were frequently in and out of prison for brief periods between 1953 and 1958.

 

The fire in Kaunda’s belly was too much and his boss’ reluctance was not helping, so he broke camps with Nkumbula to form his new party called Zambia African National Union in 1958 a year after trying to get Nkumbula and company on board with the nonviolent movement.

 

To the contrary nor sooner had Kaunda formed his Zambia African National Union in 1958 than he had actually abandoned his nonviolent rule. Between 1958 and 1959 his party was at the center of the famous Cha Cha Cha movement which included burning schools, blocking roads, work walk outs and other arm twisting programs aimed at the white supremacists.

 

His party was banned and he was sentenced to prison for nine months. He served part of the sentence in Lusaka and the remainder was in Salisbury, present day Harare. It is believed that the Harare stint was designed to break Kaunda’s ego but instead it emboldened him.

 

While he was in prison Mainza Chona also left ANC to form the United National Independence Party (UNIP) in 1959 and when he (Kaunda) was released was immediately asked by him to be its president. Kaunda obliged, stood for legislative council elections and on October 30, 1962 he won, formed a coalition government with Nkumbula’s ANC serving as minister of local government and social welfare.

 

In government Kaunda rose to the rank of Prime Minister and used his diplomatic skills convincing and allaying huge European and Asian fears that black rule would not be detrimental to their welfare after all.

 

After wining their confidence, the Zambian Enterprise went through a series of complicated phases that finally earned us our independence on October 24, 1964 with the Kenneth D Kaunda as the First Republican President and Nkumbula as his vice.

 

Post-Independence Shenanigans

 

They say every politician develops a high level of shrewdness in order to survive and Kaunda was no different. His diplomatic skills did not only lead to independence, they also contributed to his ability to unite a nation of 72 tribes into one solid nation under the Tiyende Pamodzi mantra.

 

Tiyende Pamodzi was more than a unity phrase, it was also an inspirational diatribe that encouraged every Zambian to work hard as well as show a high level of discipline. The “One Zambia One Nation” mantra made every Zambian feel a sense of belonging thus saving the country from any traumas of  civil war.

 

By bestowing a sense of Christian socialism, properly packaged as Zambian Humanism, Kaunda skillfully managed to stem off all manner of tribalism and developed a sense of good neighborhoodness thus developing a closely neat society with the ability to notice dissensions from within as well as without.

 

However, his major test wasn’t until the Lenshina Uprising. A self-styled prophetess, Alice Lenshina of the Lumpa religious sect was a major force to reckon with. Kaunda banned the religion and Lenshina was expelled into Zaire, present day DRC.

 

The Lenshina Uprising was controversial in that former colonial matters were alleged to have been major sponsors, discouraging nationals from taking part in government programs thus instilling a rebellious notion of anti-nationalism that could have led to slow national development as well as ensuring  of anarchy.

 

Conflicts arose between UNIP youth and Lumpa members, especially in Chinsali District, where the headquarters of the church were. Kaunda sent in two battalions of the Northern Rhodesia Regiment. The fight led to the deaths of about 1500 villagers. Kaunda banned the Lumpa Church in August 1964 and proclaimed a state of emergency that was retained until 1991.

 

Kaunda also faced opposition at home, from such sources as Simon Kapwepwe’s United Progressive Party (UPP) and the followers of nationalist Harry Nkumbula. Beginning in 1968, Kaunda took steps to undermine his opponents’ power, for instance banning the UPP on charges of subversion.

 

In some cases, powerful dissidents were offered positions within the UNIP hierarchy. By the end of 1972, Kaunda had effectively established the UNIP as Zambia’s only legal political party under the Choma Declaration led by Mainza Chona.

 

His hardball political shenanigans include his ability to use political power to consolidate his rule using the one-party participatory democracy theory. It is believed that it was this theory that led to a series of failed coupe d’état attempts the final culminating into the famous Mwamba Luchembe.

 

Kaunda on the other hand considered these hardball tactics necessary evils for national security reason as he later confessed, “… Speaking from my own country’s experience at independence, we were a multiparty state …

 

Every general election or by-election, we bashed heads across the political divide, and unfortunately we had bodies to bury because of political differences, until … I reached a decision that we must come together and stop this nonsense. Fortunately, we came together and from that time on, it has always been peace. Every election, there is peace.”

 

Educational Achievements

 

One of the greatest achievements of Dr. Kaunda was in the area of education. At independence it was estimated that only 0.5% of the entire population had completed primary education as our educational system was one of the most poorly developed in the entire British Commonwealth.

 

Zambia had to invest heavily in education at all levels. Kaunda instituted a policy where all children, irrespective of their parents’ ability to pay, were given free exercise books, pens and pencils. The parents’ main responsibility was to buy uniforms, pay a token “school fee” and ensure that the children attended school.

 

Infra-structural development in this area involved building government primary and secondary schools, in every district however rural. This approach meant that the best pupils were promoted to achieve their best results, all the way from primary school to university level.

 

To compensate for the shortfall in skilled teaching professionals, the government paid a premium and hired expatriate teachers and professors from all over the world of different nationalists as the nation was in a hurry to develop its own human capacity.

 

The Zambian Enterprise had no university of its own at independence and within three years, the University of Zambia was opened in Lusaka in 1966. This was after Zambians all over the country had been encouraged to donate whatever they could afford towards its construction. Kaunda was appointed Chancellor and officiated at the first graduation ceremony in 1969.

 

The main campus was situated on the Great East Road, while the medical campus was located at Ridgeway near the University Teaching Hospital. In 1979 another campus was established at the Zambia Institute of Technology in Kitwe. In 1988 the Kitwe campus was upgraded and renamed the Copperbelt University.

 

Tertiary-level institutions were also established during Kaunda’s era and were vocationally focused falling under the aegis of the Department of Technical Education and Vocational Training.

 

They included the Evelyn Hone College of Applied Arts and Commerce and the Natural Resources Development College (both in Lusaka), the Northern Technical College at Ndola, Trades Training Institute in every major provincial capital, and teacher-training colleges.

 

One the other hand the ministry of education was tasked with a duty of acquiring scholarships for other deserving student in the USA, the UK, Germany, India, China, Yugoslavia, Russia and others. This translated to having a country that only had 109 graduates at independence to one of the most literate on the entire continent by 1991 when he relinquished power.

 

Infra-Structure Development

 

Zambia is one of the most urbanized Sub-Saharan countries. This is not by any means an accident, it was by design.

 

The National Development Planning Division at Cabinet office was one of the most successful on the entire continent.

 

It was so successful that Lusaka’s Cairo Road which was a dirt road at independence was turned into an hive of activities by 1991 with high rise building on every side. This was part of the Mulungushi reform of April 1968, a Zambian Marshall Plan if you like.

 

The government declared its intention to acquire an equity holding (usually 51% or more) in a number of key foreign-owned firms, to be controlled by the Industrial Development Corporation (INDECO).

 

By January 1970, Zambia had acquired majority holding in the Zambian operations of the two major foreign mining corporations, the Anglo American Corporation and the Rhodesia Selection Trust (RST); the two became the Nchanga Consolidated Copper Mines (NCCM) and Roan Consolidated Mines (RCM), respectively.

 

Kaunda announced the creation of a new parastatal body, the Mining Development Corporation (MINDECO). The Finance and Development Corporation (FINDECO) allowed the Zambian government to gain control of insurance companies and building societies.

 

The foreign-owned banks, such as Barclays, Standard Chartered and Grindlays, successfully resisted takeover.

 

When this happened, ZANACO was born and the bank grew to be one of the most successful banking stories emanating from Africa in the entire world. It had branches across the nation as wells a fully functional London branch with satellite or correspondent branches across Europe.

 

In 1971, INDECO, MINDECO, and FINDECO were brought together under an omnibus parastatal, the Zambia Industrial and Mining Corporation (ZIMCO), to create one of the largest companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with Kaunda as Chairman of the Board.

 

The management contracts under which day-to-day operations of the mines had been carried out by Anglo American and RST were ended in 1973. In 1982 NCCM and RCM were merged into the giant Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines Ltd (ZCCM). ZCCM became the world’s largest conglomerate trading shares with a dual listing at the London Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange as late as 1996.

 

The domino effect of these programs led to each of these, INDECO, MINDECO, FINDECO and ZIMCO welding a lot of financial resources that were used to build business houses headquartered along Cairo Road thus accelerating development in Lusaka at exponential rates.

 

Also most of the above were tasked with construction of housing units for their employees, thus resulting in speedy, well organized urban planned cosmopolitan areas such as Kabwata in Lusaka, Ndeke Village in Kitwe, Kafue Estates in Kafue, Maramba in Livingstone just to mention a few.

 

Other developmental programs involved the building of Mwembeshi Earth Station, commissioned in 1974 just ten years after independence is still one of the few in the world. The sad story is that even up to now it is underutilized as an international gateway. 

The creation of Kariba Dam culminated into the creation of the world’s largest man-made lake at the time. It also guaranteed hydro-electric production with the largest turbines on the continent, giving our Zambian Enterprise potential to electrify half of Africa at the time. 

ITT Supersonic based in Livingstone could have been considered as a rite of passage industry in the field of electronics. It has the capacity to produce telephone handsets, made radios and televisions sets with export markets all around Africa. It used to be a joy in the 70’s and 80’s to travel abroad and watch a television set made in Zambia.

 

Under INDECO, Zambia was the only country on the continent other than South Africa with assembly plants making and assemblying cars and trucks at the time. We used to make Fuso truck, minibuses (Fuso Canter) and Mitsubishi Galants in Chingola.

 

Livingstone Motor Assemblers was the epicenter of a modern day European style assembly plant producing Fiats from 127s, to 124s (getaway cars) to 131 – Miravioris and 132 GLS. These cars assembled in Zambia had markets to as far places as Benin.

 

In Ndola, we had Rover Zambia under Lonrho which produced the latest Peugeots such as 504s and Land Rovers.

 

The last latest Land Rover Discovery actually debutted in Zambia before it was unveiled in Europe. Our manufacturing base per capita was stronger than even some Eastern European nations at the time.

 

To avoid more rushed urbanization, Kaunda made sure each provincial capital was a hive of industrialization. Mansa had Mansa Batteries and produced those both for local and export markets, Chipata had Eagle Industries that produced bikes, Kasama was in charge of tobbacco affiliated businesses, Mongu took care of canneries, etc.

 

In our industrial hub, Dunlop used to make tires for export around the region, Serious International used to make designer suits with outlets in London, United Kingdom and Hamburg, Germany; Leyland Motors used to recondition engines for heavy duty equipment, Lever Brothers turned into ROP created household commodities, the list is endless.

 

The Mukuku Bridge at the time of commissioning was Africa’s longest bridge while the Tazara Railway line broke world construction records. The development of Africa’s longest pipeline at the time connecting Dar-es-Salaam and Indeni in Ndola was another major accomplishment not experienced before on the continent.

 

Foreign Policy & Diplomatic Skills

 

 

An outspoken supporter of the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa he also opposed Ian Smith’s white minority rule in Rhodesia. He allowed several African liberation fronts such as ZAPU and ZANU of Rhodesia and African National Congress to set headquarters in Zambia.

 

Former ANC president Oliver Tambo spent a significant proportion of his 30 year exile living and working in Zambia. Joshua Nkomo the leader of ZAPU also stationed a military base in Zambia. In retaliation the white minority governments of Rhodesia and South Africa frequently led espionage and bombing attacks in Zambia.

 

Herbert Chitepo, prominent ZANU leader, was killed in a car bomb in Lusaka in 1975. The struggle in both Rhodesia and South Africa and its offshoot wars in Namibia, Angola and Mozambique placed a huge economic burden on Zambia as these were the country’s main trading partners.

 

Kaunda was a strong supporter of the Non Aligned Movement. He hosted a NAM summit in Lusaka in 1970 and served as the movement’s chairman from 1970 to 1973. During the period he was also Secretary General of the Organization of African Unity which time he elevated the status of Africa around the world.

 

He maintained a close friendship with Yugoslavia’s long-time leader Tito and is remembered by many former citizens of Yugoslavia for weeping openly over his casket in 1980. Kaunda, in fact, had a house built in Lusaka for Tito’s visits to the country.

 

He had frequent but cordial differences with President Reagan whom he met 1983 and Margaret Thatcher mainly over what he saw as the West’s blind eye to apartheid but he always maintained warm relations with the People’s Republic of China

 

History will no doubt be kinder to Kaunda than current events might suggest. His individual bravery and leadership helped to establish Zambia as a nation during the twilight of colonial rule, and his international statesmanship has led to reforms even in the last bastion of minority rule, South Africa. 

 (In Picture Above KK Ballroom Dancing With Margaret Thatcher)

It is no wonder that the first country Nelson Mandela visited after leaving prison on February 27, 1990 was Zambia and was an honored guest of Dr. Kenneth David Kaunda. His greatest fall came when he did not realize it was time for others to take over, his greatest foul were his close associates who had not guts to tell him it was over.

 

After leaving politics Kaunda has dedicated the rest of his life to other human causes and he is a serious advocate on HIV/AIDS issues. On November 25,2002 Harvard University through the Harvard Public Health Program invited him to speak to more than 180 intellectual from around the world at the Snyder Auditorium.

 

He was also resident professor at Boston University from 2002 to 2004 where he performed among other duties not only pertaining to the plight of the victims of HIV/AIDS.

 

Dr. Kaunda was the first mainland Sub-Saharan head of state to allow free multi-party elections and relinquish power when he lost even before his constitutional mandate ended. Mathieu Kerekou of Benin had done so before but that was after his term had ended in March of 1991.

 

With so much accomplished, with so little pride; it is our turn as the Zambian Enterprise to do the right thing and honor Dr. Kaunda by naming Lusaka International Airport after him. Let us not forget that classy-daddy-3.gifeven the multi-party democracy we so cherish came about because he relinguished power voluntarily otherwise we could have been another case study.

 

Happy Birthday Great Son of Africa from all of us … that’s this week’s memo from us at the Zambian Chronicle … thanks a trillion.

 

Brainwave R Mumba, Sr.

CEO  & President – Zambian Chronicle

 

Copyrights © 2008 Zambian Chronicle. All rights reserved. Zambian Chronicle content may not be stored except for personal, non-commercial use. Republication and redissemination of Zambian Chronicle content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Zambian Chronicle. Zambian Chronicle shall not be liable for any errors, omissions, interruptions or delays in connection with the Zambian Chronicle content or from any damages arising therefrom.

 

Zambian Chronicle is a wholly owned subsidiary of Microplus Holdings International, Inc.

 

Copyrights © 2008 Microplus Holdings Int., Inc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advertisements

Choose Your Language Of Preference Below

French Version German Version Russian Version Spanish Version

Portuguese Version Chinese Version Arabic Version

By Belliah K Theise

 b6_edited.jpegThis week ‘s memo is about  the next Zambian president. Who should take the Zambian presidential sit in 2011?

I hate to admit this, the truth is, our leaders are always voted by villagers, marketeers and street boys who have no clue about education and foreign policies. 

 According to our observation, most politicians have a way to get into a mind of a person with little knowledge or no knowledge at all.  This includes developed countries. If you take a close look on politics, you will find that people end up voting for a candidates who keeps preaching what voters want to hear. People will go out to vote just because of a hear say,  without assessing a candidate  in practical terms.

In most cases, political Candidates have a tendency to study what the audience want to hear. Any one can stand and say I will give you jobs, bring rich breakfast, lunch and dinner in your home. Zambian Voters will listen because there are no jobs and are in poverty. As a candidate, you are happy when people vote for you. Are you going to keep your promise once you are voted in office?

 Practically, things always turns out to be different from all the promises that politicians make.

it’s time for candidates who are aspiring, to start preaching on practical issues and not to give fake hopes to people. Talk about real things that affects the economy of every country, and explain, to voters that it is not an easy path to bring stability to the country, it takes hard work and devotion to make things happen.

Disappointments, comes out when a candidate makes fake promises, do something else after being voted into office. We ask all the aspiring candidates to be more practical in the way they make promises to people, to avoid early disappointments.

It is not fair for voters  who have no clue on “Inflation” or economics, who listens innocently and line up to vote for a candidate who later does something contrary to his/her promise.

Zambia has highly experienced ,knowledgeable, and educated people.  Why is it that Zambians ends up voting for wrong leaders?

Could it be that all the educated Zambians, are too frustrated with the system, and has opted to sit back and watch, while the poor Zambian villagers , marketeers and street boys take their stand to vote for what they hear from those who can read their minds and give them fake promises? or could it be that qualified leaders and educated Zambians are  too busy with other duties and other personal stuff, or they are not brave enough to fight for their people or  is it lack of bringing themselves out with a positive approach to their fellow Zambians?

 If you are candidate or a voter. It is time to revisit your weaknesses and try to improve on them.

Our advice is:

Avoid:  Hate, tribal, gossip, and malicious rumors. By all means, should not be used as a tool to pick a right candidate for president. Validate each rumor, use your own discretion and common sense. Avoid operating like robots that are programed to perform certain functions.  Operating like a robot, makes both leaders and their voters look like idiots, when things go sour.

Remember:

Not every rumor or gossip is true. Yes there is no smoke without fire, but you have to remember that humans always enjoy negatives that appear on a candidate without using their good sense of judgement or common sense, they vote basing on those facts. If a negative outweighs a positive side of a candidate, it takes away all the good work he/she has done.

Remember, Media and campaigns are there to help voters to pick the best candidate, but at the same time, uses that as a tool to bring down a candidate, if the opponent has strong links to the media.  Many great leaders are brought down in no seconds, and voters end up voting for useless candidates.

Again… use your common sense and your good judgement, when you read negatives that comes flying on potential candidates.

On that note, we decided to re-visit Inonge Mbikusita Lewanika’s profile, as she seem to be carrying all the package of what makes a great president.

We at Zambian Chronicle, would like to see Dr Inonge Mbikusita Lewanika, contest for president in 2011. We have well rounded Zambian candidates like, HH and Many more, Inonge adds to the package.

For years, Zambians have had a problem when it comes to picking a president. It’s time to check where Zambians go wrong when it comes to voting?

Weakness:

We Vote with emotions, tribal, rumors and hate, Worse more when it comes to gender. 

In the end we get disappointed with our own voting when things go in a different direction. 

May be it is time to turn around, and look seriously inside lives and works of the aspiring candidates, without looking at a tribe, relations, cheap gossips or malicious rumors.

It is even more difficult to convince a Zambian mind, when it comes to women leadership.

When we look at Zambians, we see a lot of potential candidates men and women, that can lead us in 2011, and bring light to Zambia. 

I am not here advocating for Inonge because I am a woman.

Here at Zambian Chronicle, we are looking at the credentials, Education and experience.

Zambia needs a candidate for president, that has both local and foreign policy experience. As an African country we can not rule out education. It should be very cardinal  in this aspect.

 Therefore when it comes to choosing a president, let us open our eyes and pick quality and not quantity.

Inonge Mbikusita Lewanika and Hakainde Hichilema are both quality.

Having said that, Zambian Chronicles will continue to bring out candidates, that we think can make great president for Zambia in the future.

As we pointed out, in our earlier debates, Hakainde Hichilema and Inonge Mbikusita Lewanika, have the real package.

Therefore, without looking at the tribes and gender, we feel Inonge can make a great president for Zambia for 2011. This includes, the appointees of ministers and local government officials.

This forum may help the next Zambian President to pick right candidates for certain roles.

Below is Inonge ‘s profile and credentials:

Copyrights © 2008 Zambian Chronicle. All rights reserved. Zambian Chronicle content may not be stored except for personal, non-commercial use. Republication and redissemination of Zambian Chronicle content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Zambian Chronicle. Zambian Chronicle shall not be liable for any errors, omissions, interruptions or delays in connection with the Zambian Chronicle content or from any damages arising therefrom.

Zambian Chronicle is a wholly owned subsidiary of Microplus Holdings International, Inc.

Copyrights © 2008 Microplus Holdings Int., Inc   

Princess Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika (born 10 July 1943, Senanga) is a senior Zambian politician currently. For more about her check

http://www.inongelewanika.com/family.htm

   1.   Dr. Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika is currently Ambassador of the Republic of Zambia to the United States of America . Before her appointment to Washington D.C.

 2. She was Ambassador and Special Envoy to the Zambian President during his term as Chairman of the African Union.

3. Dr. Lewanika served as a Member of Parliament in the Zambian Parliament from 1991 to 2001. She was the first Chairperson of the Zambia All Party Women Parliamentarians Caucus and also founding Vice-chairperson of the outhern, Eastern and Horn of Africa African Women Parliamentarian Caucus.

  

4. At a very critical time just before national elections in 2001, Dr. Lewanika chaired the National Crisis Committee of the Alliance of Opposition Political Parties.

5.  She is a former candidate for President of the Republic of Zambia in the December 2001 Elections.

6.  She is an Educator by profession and has worked in various levels of Education.

Prior to her involvement in politics, Dr. Lewanika worked with UNICEF in key leadership roles in Africa overseeing more than twenty countries at a time. Jim Grant, the former head of UNICEF once called her “the most knowledgeable person about the children of Africa .” Dr. Lewanika was among five women from various continents to brief members of the United Nations Security Council on the first and unprecedented debate that resulted in UN Resolution 13 on WOMEN, PEACE and SECURITY in the year 2000. She was among sixteen (16) eminent African Women Members of the Organization of African Unity (now African Union) Committee on Peace and Development, an Advisory Group to the African Union.

She was President of Federation of African Women’s Peace Networks (FERFAP) from 1997 to 2002. As President of the Federation of African Women Peace Networks (FEFAP) she contributed to mobilization of peace activities. In that capacity, she was selected to be among ten prominent African Women Peace Workers that visited Rwanda soon after the genocide. She later led a United Nations delegation to Burundi and Rwanda to assess the effects of the genocide on women and children and recommend intervention strategies. She led the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) Observer Mission of 96 Southern African

Academicians, Researchers and Members of Civil Society to the Zimbabwean Presidential, Mayoral and Council Elections in 2002. She was one of the International Youth Foundation’s founding board members.

Dr. Lewanika holds a Ph.D. in Early Childhood and Primary Education from New York University . She is a mother of two grown daughters, a grandmother to four boys and a grand daughter. She has lived in five countries and speaks eight languages.

——————————–

A look at more of  Inonge Mbikusita Lewanika’s work Below: 

After 30 years of promoting girls’ education in the less-developed world, aid workers are now realizing that it is not enough to simply open the school door to girls. Unemployment, clean water and HIV/AIDS are now also on their agenda.
Inonge Mbikusita-LewanikaWASHINGTON (WOMENSENEWS)–Like many aid workers and activists trying to improve the lives of women in developing countries, Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika has long viewed education as the key to solving many of her countrywomen’s problems.Mbikusita-Lewanika, a former member of Zambia’s parliament and now the country’s ambassador to the United States, says the benefits of educating girls are so numerous– from raising marrying ages and lowering birth rates to stemming health and economic problems–that she would like to install a plaque reading “Send the Girls to School” in every village.But 30 years after the U.S. government and other aid-givers began to promote gender equality in their programs, they, like Mbikusita-Lewanika, have learned that relieving the burdens of poor women is more complex than once thought. Foreign aid officials from the United States, United Kingdom, United Nations and various nongovernmental organizations say that it is not enough to open the school door to girls if their families are besieged by unemployment, unclean water, labor-intensive household chores and, increasingly, debilitating health problems such as HIV/AIDS. Nor is it enough to get a few women elected to the parliament or congress while women in the countryside still suffer age-old discriminations.To succeed, say aid experts, gender-equality programs must be integrally incorporated into the aid process from top to bottom, beginning with constant attention to gender issues at the policy level and ending with a wide distribution of burden-relieving aid in the rural areas where discrimination is often most ingrained.In Africa, for instance, women perform about 75 percent of agricultural work, according to Mark Blackden, the lead economist in the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction and Management of Gender Equity Division. He estimates the continent’s per-capita income would have doubled over the last 30 years if women had been given more aid and education to help with crop production. But aid givers have only recently realized that “one does indeed need to talk about the African farmer and her husband,” Blackden said.Instead, because of cultural misunderstandings, they have often directed agricultural education and technology to men. As a result, Mbikusita-Lewanika said, it is not uncommon to see men sitting on tractors as women and girls continue to cultivate with a hand hoe nearby.Clearing a small plot of land in this manner can involve 18-hour days, leaving women little time to raise their children, gather fire wood, walk long distances to find potable water and, increasingly, care for the sick. With such intensive household labor needs, Mbikusita-Lewanika said girls often have little time for school.”The average woman takes care of everyone else but herself,” Mbikusita-Lewanika said at a recent Capitol Hill briefing for legislative staff.In countries where economies have been destroyed by conflict or AIDS, another factor diminishes the rationale for education: The lack of jobs when a girl graduates. As a result, Mbikusita-Lewanika said that, while education “may be the most important investment, it may not necessarily be the first investment” that donors should undertake. For instance, providing drinking water would save women in many Zambian villages 1 1/2 hours a day, she said.In 1973, the U.S. Congress passed the Percy Amendment requiring that the nation’s foreign aid help integrate women into the mainstream of developing countries’ societies. Since then, the U.S. Agency for International Development–the main administrator of U.S. development aid–and other organizations have progressed from conducting a few gender equality projects a year to considering gender issues as a part of nearly every decision. While women’s issues once were often segregated in a separate office or set of discussions, all programs are now expected to address their impact on women.”The progress can be summed up in one sentence: It is no longer a separate thing,” USAID administrator Andrew S. Natsios told a Washington foreign aid conference earlier this month.

More Work to Be Done

Still, aid officials and activists say there is much more to do. According to the World Bank, more than 20 percent of the world’s population still lives on about $1 per day. The majority are women. And women’s burdens, especially in AIDS-stricken Africa, are growing as they bear bigger social and financial burdens.

One way donors can begin to lift that burden, Mbikusita-Lewanika told legislative staff, is to bypass governments and distribute aid money to local faith-based organizations and other groups that work at the local level and already know the intricate problems the women in their community face. Many central governments have not established effective ways to distribute help in the countryside, she said.

Other officials suggest increasing funding to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa. The $2 billion the Bush administration is prepared to spend in 2004 “is not enough,” said Kathryn Wolford, president of Lutheran World Relief, based in Baltimore.

Wolford also suggests an increased focus on debt relief for poor countries, which would free funds for social programs and infrastructure that could relieve women’s burdens.

Other activists say aid organizations need to collect and process more data showing the positive link between women’s participation and economic development. While many activists suggest that there is already too much talk about women’s problems and not enough action to solve them, economists say that more convincing evidence of the link between women’s progress and economic progress could be found.

At the foreign aid conference, Phil Evans, the senior social development adviser for the United Kingdom’s U.N. mission, said that statistical gender analyses are often riddled with “methodological problems,” in large part because researchers have focused on studying women instead of placing them in a societal context.

Some say the United States should signal its commitment to gender equality by ratifying the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, an international treaty that aims to outlaw discrimination against women and requires signatory countries to periodically report on their progress. President Carter signed the treaty in 1980 but the U.S. Senate has not ratified it as 174 nations have done.

Ratifying the treaty would send a powerful signal that the United States will join the world to “use the instruments available to us to hold countries accountable” for improving women’s lives, Geeta Rao Gupta, president of the Washington-based International Center for Research on Women, told legislative staff.

New Solutions in Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, USAID is attempting to deal with these challenges and its methods are not always very subtle. To encourage families to educate their daughters, USAID gives extra rations of vegetable oil to girls who attend school every day for a month, Natsios said. The number of girls attending school has increased overall from 6 percent to 35 percent, Natsios said, and is reaching 50 percent in some towns.

Not all of USAID’s work in Afghanistan is so targeted at women and girls but Natsios said he has found that nearly every project is having an impact on women’s status. For instance, the U.S. program that is building a 300-mile road from Kandahar to Kabul is unexpectedly improving women’s health in southern Afghanistan. Now mothers in childbirth and women in other forms of medical distress can be driven to medical facilities in Kabul in a matter of five to six hours. Before the road was built, the trip could take two days, Natsios said.

In addition, USAID has installed day-care centers in all Afghan government ministry buildings. Natsios said women who work for the ministries–many now widows with young children–said they would not return to their jobs unless their children had a safe place to go.

While many activists and government officials say gender issues are no longer seen as women’s alone, they hope the next 30 years will bring a greater resolution to age-old problems.

“It has taken a very long time to get as far as we are and (we) have a very long road to go,” said Julia Taft, assistant administrator and director of the United Nation’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery.

Lori Nitschke is a freelance journalist living in Washington, D.C. She was recently a Knight-Bagehot fellow at Columbia University in New York, where she received master’s degrees in journalism and business administration. Previously, she covered economic issues for Congressional Quarterly.

Copyrights © 2008 Zambian Chronicle. All rights reserved. Zambian Chronicle content may not be stored except for personal, non-commercial use. Republication and redissemination of Zambian Chronicle content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Zambian Chronicle. Zambian Chronicle shall not be liable for any errors, omissions, interruptions or delays in connection with the Zambian Chronicle content or from any damages arising therefrom.

Zambian Chronicle is a wholly owned subsidiary of Microplus Holdings International, Inc.

Copyrights © 2008 Microplus Holdings Int., Inc   

Choose Your Language Of Preference Below

French Version German Version Russian Version Spanish Version

Portuguese Version Chinese Version Arabic Version

h.jpegHakainde Hichilema (born June 4, 1962) is the President of Zambia’s United Party for National Development (UPND).  

He replaced Anderson Mazoka after an interparty election, organized by then functioning party president Sakwiba Sikota, which followed Mazoka’s death in May 2006.  

He is also President of the opposition alliance United Democratic Alliance (UDA) which comprises FDD, UPND and UNIP. 

Mr. Hichilema popularly known as Sammy by his close associates is married to Mutinta Hichilema and they have three children, daughter Miyanda (12), and sons Habwela (9) and Chikonka (6). 

He is a graduate of UNZA where he studied economics and business between 1981-1986 after which he went to the United Kingdom where he did his Masters in Business Administration – MBA.

His professional career includes positions such as assistant consultant at Equator Advisory Services. At Coopers & Lybrand he held various positions including that of director, corporate advisor and he also served as CEO from 1994-1998. When Coopers & Lybrand changed its name to Grant Thornton, he was named Managing Partner of the firm. 

Mr. Hichilema is Chairman of the board(s) for Sun International, Greenbelt Fertilizers Ltd, Media Trust Fund, Export Development Program and sits on various boards as director including the Zambia Investment Board, Seedco Zambia, African Financial Services Limited, Zambezi Nickel or Bermuda Limited (Bermuda) and West Lake Investments (Mauritius).  

He also sits on seven other boards in member capacity which include but not limited to the Zambia Association of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Zambia Business Forum, etc.  

As a presidential candidate for the United Democratic Alliance (UDA)  he ran against incumbent president Levy Mwanawasa of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy and Patriotic Front candidate Michael Sata.  

Mr. Hichilema received the endorsement of former president Kenneth Kaunda. The elections were held on September 28, 2006, and Hichilema took third place with about 25% of the vote while other estimates say he actually come in second when the final tally is scrutinized. 

In this week’s memo, he is being contrasted with Mr. Michael C Sata whose profile was posted against Dr. Lewanika and we don’t see any sense in us reposting it.

classy-daddy-3.gifWe hope pundits will look at a veracity of issues pertaining to both qualities as well as qualification of who we should put forward as the nation’s chief executive officer for the Zambian Enterprise in these perilous times.

That’s this week’s memo from us at the Zambian Chronicle … thanks a trillion.

Brainwave R Mumba, Sr.

CEO & President – Zambian Chronicle

Copyrights © 2008 Zambian Chronicle. All rights reserved. Zambian Chronicle content may not be stored except for personal, non-commercial use. Republication and redissemination of Zambian Chronicle content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Zambian Chronicle. Zambian Chronicle shall not be liable for any errors, omissions, interruptions or delays in connection with the Zambian Chronicle content or from any damages arising therefrom.

Zambian Chronicle is a wholly owned subsidiary of Microplus Holdings International, Inc.

Copyrights © 2008 Microplus Holdings Int., Inc.  

Choose Your Language Of Preference Below

French Version German Version Russian Version Spanish Version

Portuguese Version Chinese Version Arabic Version

By Shapi Shacinda

LUSAKA, Feb 29 (Reuters) – Zambia has asked foreign mining companies for alternative proposals following their criticism of planned tax changes, officials said on Friday.

“As a committee, we believe the government has done its research worldwide on which they are basing their proposal,” Godrey Beene, chairman of a Zambian parliamentary committee dealing with mining issues, told the state media.

“We have therefore given mining companies time to go and prepare a counter proposal which they should submit to us any time this week.”

He did not indicate if the proposed rates by the government would be cut.

The head of the Chamber of Mines of Zambia, Frederick Bantubonse, said foreign miners would pay more than the stated 47 percent in effective mining taxes when the new regime comes into force from April, compared to 31.7 percent now.

The government has proposed a windfall profit tax at a minimum of 25 percent and an increase in mineral royalty to 3.0 percent from 0.6 percent.

It also plans a variable profit tax at 15 percent on taxable income above eight percent and to raise corporate tax to 30 percent from 25 percent.

Bantubonse said the mining firms had studied the proposed tax increases and found they would be higher than 47 percent and detrimental to their operations and future investments.

“(Mining) companies have scrutinized … new mining tax proposals for their own operations and in every case have found that the effective tax rate will be higher than (the) calculated 47 percent,” he said in a statement.

The government had not called mining firms for a meeting to discuss the tax rates, despite numerous promises.

“To date, no such discussions or consultations have taken place. All (mining firms) with development agreements are willing to discuss and renegotiate the terms and conditions of their agreements,” Bantubonse said.

Zambia’s biggest copper producer is Konkola Copper Mines (KCM), a unit of London-listed Vedanta Resources (VED.L: Quote, Profile, Research).

Others are Mopani Copper Mines, a venture of Swiss firm Glencore International AG [GLEN.UL], First Quantum Minerals (FM.TO: Quote, Profile, Research) and Chibuluma Mine, a unit of Metorex (MTXJ.J: Quote, Profile, Research). Australia’s Equinox Minerals (EQN.AX: Quote, Profile, Research) owns Lumwana Mining Plc. (Reporting By Shapi Shacinda; editing by Michael Roddy)

© Reuters 2008 All rights reserved

Choose Your Language Of Preference Below

French Version German Version Russian Version Spanish Version

Portuguese Version Chinese Version Arabic Version

Hakainde Hichilema (born June 4, 1962) is the President of Zambia’s United Party for National Development (UPND).  

He replaced Anderson Mazoka after an interparty election, organized by then functioning party president Sakwiba Sikota, which followed Mazoka’s death in May 2006.  

He is also President of the opposition alliance United Democratic Alliance (UDA) which comprises FDD, UPND and UNIP. 

Mr. Hichilema popularly known as Sammy by his close associates is married to Mutinta Hichilema and they have three children, daughter Miyanda (12), and sons Habwela (9) and Chikonka (6). 

He is a graduate of UNZA where he studied economics and business between 1981-1986 after which he went to the United Kingdom where he did his Masters in Business Administration – MBA.

His professional career includes positions such as assistant consultant at Equator Advisory Services. At Coopers & Lybrand he held various positions including that of director, corporate advisor and he also served as CEO from 1994-1998. When Coopers & Lybrand changed its name to Grant Thornton, he was named Managing Partner of the firm. 

Mr. Hichilema is Chairman of the board(s) for Sun International, Greenbelt Fertilizers Ltd, Media Trust Fund, Export Development Program and sits on various boards as director including the Zambia Investment Board, Seedco Zambia, African Financial Services Limited, Zambezi Nickel or Bermuda Limited (Bermuda) and West Lake Investments (Mauritius).  

He also sits on seven other boards in member capacity which include but not limited to the Zambia Association of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Zambia Business Forum, etc.  

As a presidential candidate for the United Democratic Alliance (UDA)  he ran against incumbent president Levy Mwanawasa of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy and Patriotic Front candidate Michael Sata.  

Mr. Hichilema received the endorsement of former president Kenneth Kaunda. The elections were held on September 28, 2006, and Hichilema took third place with about 25% of the vote while other estimates say he actually come in second when the final tally is scrutinized. 

In this week’s memo, he is being contrasted with Mr. Michael C Sata whose profile was posted against Dr. Lewanika and we don’t see any sense in us reposting it.

classy-daddy-3.gifWe hope pundits will look at a veracity of issues pertaining to both qualities as well as qualification of who we should put forward as the nation’s chief executive officer for the Zambian Enterprise in these perilous times.

That’s this week’s memo from us at the Zambian Chronicle … thanks a trillion.

Brainwave R Mumba, Sr.

CEO & President – Zambian Chronicle

Copyrights © 2008 Zambian Chronicle. All rights reserved. Zambian Chronicle content may not be stored except for personal, non-commercial use. Republication and redissemination of Zambian Chronicle content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Zambian Chronicle. Zambian Chronicle shall not be liable for any errors, omissions, interruptions or delays in connection with the Zambian Chronicle content or from any damages arising therefrom.

Zambian Chronicle is a wholly owned subsidiary of Microplus Holdings International, Inc.

Copyrights © 2008 Microplus Holdings Int., Inc.  

Choose Your Language Of Preference Below

French Version German Version Russian Version Spanish Version

Portuguese Version Chinese Version Arabic Version

First Lady Maureen Mwanawasa is pictured at the launch of the HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, “Real Man, Real Woman”. Photo by Zambia In-Country TeamCan Maureen Mwanawasa be Zambia’s first female president? We think so!!!

Recently during the cabinet reshuffle HE Levy P Mwanawasa, SC. encouraged NEC (National Executive Committee for the MMD) to start thinking about his successor. 

Dr. Mwanawasa also mentioned that he had someone in mind that he felt NEC would have no objections to … whoever that person is and or could be, we at the Zambian Chronicle are not privy his choice.

But with the advent of female presidents around the globe, we think that the First Lady would have an easy sail through the MMD nomination process. 

There are several reasons why this might happen among them being that Dr. Mwanawasa’s popularity is at an all-time high within the Zambian Enterprise.  Thus at the end of his term, it goes without saying that whoever he endorses would carry the day as his successor. 

The other reasons are but not limited to the fact that, we Africans seem to love continuity more than change and should the current first lady be interested in running for State House, more of the president’s supporters would feel more comfortable with that scenario as they would still envision Dr. Mwanawasa at the helm. 

Also, world trends seem to be moving in that direction. In Argentina, former first lady Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner won the country’s presidential election in a peaceful vote, while Hillary R Clinton might be the first female US president next year in what may be one of the toughest races in history. 

Should Mrs. Mwanawasa seek the nomination, she would have a lot of things working for well for her. Among other things unlike our first two first ladies, she is more up to the task, educated, articulate, more diplomatic as well as classy-daddy-3.gifpresidential.

She is seen from inner circles as the brain behind a lot of good initiatives in the current administration and she is very likeable. 

UDA can then re-unite and let Nawakwi run so she can be beaten once and for all – sorry Edith but we just had to throw that one in; and that’s this week’s memo from us at the Zambian Chronicle … thanks a trillion

 

 

Brainwave R Mumba, Sr.

CEO & President – Zambian Chronicle

Copyrights © 2007 Zambian Chronicle. All rights reserved. Zambian Chronicle content may not be stored except for personal, non-commercial use. Republication and redissemination of Zambian Chronicle content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Zambian Chronicle. Zambian Chronicle shall not be liable for any errors, omissions, interruptions or delays in connection with the Zambian Chronicle content or from any damages arising therefrom.

Zambian Chronicle is a wholly owned subsidiary of Microplus Holdings International, Inc.

Copyrights © 2007 Microplus Holdings Int., Inc.

   

 

Choose Your Language Of Preference Below

French Version German Version Russian Version Spanish Version

Portuguese Version Chinese Version Arabic Version 



18 September 2007

Report on economical road building in Zambia, mp3 – download audio clip
Listen to Report on economical road building in Zambia, mp3 audio clip
Report on economical road building in Zambia, ra – download audio clip
Listen to Report on economical road building in Zambia, ra audio clip

Engineers in southern Africa have developed a product called Ecobond – a non-toxic hybrid adhesive sealant for the construction of roads and buildings. Voice of America English to Africa reporter Danstan Kaunda in Lusaka, Zambia says that the new material could cut the cost of road construction in half.

The initial test project of Ecobond technology in Zambia involves the construction of a 300-kilometer stretch of road in Mpulungu, northern Zambia.

Ecobond is a combination of sawdust, paper sludge, palm fiber and other inorganic wastes chemically mixed with Urea Formaldehyde – a colorless chemical liquid. It is processed industrially on a large scale by the Pretoria-based plant Techneco, Ltd., of South Africa.  

In road construction, it’s mixed with gravel and then sprayed over the surface, before being compacted by a heavy roller, which also levels the surface. 

Kim Anderson is a Danish expert working on the project in Zambia.

He said Ecobond includes ingredients with chemical properties similar to so-called “cement” used by termites in making their mounds.  With Ecobond, the ingredients are mixed with clay.  So far, he says, the product has shown promise.

“The best proof that we have now is the [Ecobond] road that we have constructed in South Africa. It has been there of over 10 years now. There have been about over 11 million vehicles driving through there and thousands of other heavy trucks every week running on the same road [and still in good condition].” 

But the European Union says continuous research in such a technological development is needed to ensure durability in road construction before investing in it.

The EU has been supporting Zambia in various sectors such as rural development, education, health and mining. Jurgen Kettner is head of infrastructure development at the European Union:

“In the past, there were a lot of magic methods developed for making cheap and durable roads [in Africa]. They included the use of chemicals and other additional stuff, but at the end of the day, most of those [methods] turned out not to be durable of long-term structures.” 

The Ecobond roads are said to be much cheaper than conventional asphalt ones because most of the raw materials, like soil and gravel, are readily available.

Anderson said Ecobond roads are less energy-consuming than asphalt road. A main component in an asphalt road – bitmap — has to be heated before being applied to a surface:

“The good thing with the Ecobond road construction is that we do not use too much energy or oil, petrol and not even diesel like it is the case with asphalt roads. This makes it about 50 to 60 per cent cheaper. “

Ecobond was also used in making bricks for the Eastgate Shopping Mall in Harare, Zimbabwe.

So far it seems to be cheap, durable and environmentally friendly.  If it tests well in Zambia, Ecobond will also be extended to other southern African countries like Botswana and Malawi.

http://www.voanews.com/english/Africa/2007-09-18-voa36.cfm

Next Page »